A first-generation SVT-92U.
|Country of origin||Soviet Union|
|Number produced||130,000,000 overall, including variants|
Type 6 (Chinese copy)
M23 (Canadian designation)
|Users||Soviet Union |
People's Liberation Army (captured)
United States (acquired through trading)
Numerous South American and African nations
|Cost||250-1500 rubles (depending on the variant) |
750-2000 dollars (depending on location of purchase and location of manufacture)
|Action||Blowback, roller-delayed bolt, self-loading|
|Fire Mode||Fully-automatic |
|Rate of Fire||500-600 rounds per minute|
|Cartridge||7.92 x 60mm R|
|Effective range||750 meters|
|Muzzel velocity||800 m/s|
|Overall length||55 inches|
|Barrel length||27 inches|
|Feed system||20-round fixed magazine |
20-round detachable magazine (SVT-92M onwards)
30-round detachable box magazine (non-standard, compatible with SVT-92M onwards)
The Samozaryadnaya Vintovka Tokareva, Obrazets 1992 goda (English; Tokarev Self-loading Rifle, Model 1992), more commonly known as the SVT-92, was a redesigned version of the SVT-40 rifle of World War II. Designed around the, then, new 7.92 x 60mm rimmed cartridge , it was meant to replace the AKM as the Soviets' service rifle for all conflicts thereafter.
The SVT-92 utilizes a conventional rifle layout, with the action, bolt, and magazine-well ahead of the trigger assembly, and no pistol grip. It utilized a gas-operated short-stroke piston, which reduced weight and kick compared to direct impingement or a long-stroke piston, and also improved overall and short-term reliability. Its roller-delayed bolt allowed it to chamber rounds faster than the SVT-40, and also added to overall simplicity of design. All models were designed for fully and semi-automatic fire modes, and apart from the carbine variants, were equipped with fold able bayonets below the barrel.
The overall SVT-92 design had its origins in the SVT-40 of World War II. However, there were a large amount of differences from the older design, especially in its loading system and cartridge. While the SVT-40 was designed with a detachable box magazine, the original SVT-92 design used a fixed internal magazine which was fed by four five-round stripper clips, two ten-round stripper clips, or a single twenty-round clip in a bundle similar to an en-bloc clip, although the clip's backing was ejected by releasing the bolt. While the fixed magazine reduced overall costs of production and made the weapon more reliable, it also proved to be a handicap in the field, where the different clips would often break apart before insertion into the magazine, making it difficult to reload properly. In addition, the en-bloc like clip was known to be very inefficient in ejecting the clip backing, which lead to more difficulties in feeding the rifle. In addition, the original, first-generation SVT-92 had become well-known for its habit of breaking under sustained fire, especially in the automatic fire mode—this is due to the fact that the rifle's bolt assembly was not long enough to accommodate the large load of the 7.92mm x 60mmR cartridge.The SVT-92M, developed in 2042, made many improvements on the design. Although some variants of the original SVT-92, such as the SVT-92U, which was a carbine variant of the SVT-92, were produced, none addressed the many concerns that the first design had. In the 2040s, the Soviets began another modernization of their arsenal. Because of resource scarcity becoming more and more obvious, the SVT-92M's design included two alternatives to the synthetic materials the original design had made use of—stamped metal parts and wooden furniture, both of which were produced for the remaining years leading up to the Great War. The primary improvement over the SVT-92 was the replacement of the fixed external magazine in favor of detachable box magazines. Although some models, particularly those destined for ceremonial usage, retained the fixed-magazine construction, all combat models utilized a 20-round detachable box magazine.
Rifles created with a fold able stock were designated SVT-92S or SVT-92SM, depending on if they were first or second generation. The same applied to the carbine variants, the SVT-92U and SVT-92UM, as well as the SVT-92SU and SVT-92SUM, which were intended for usage as airborne or vehicle crewmen.
The SVT-92U and SVT-92UM, in which the "U" stands for Ukorochenniy, meaning "shortened", is, per its designation, a shortened version of the base SVT-92U. It retains its fixed 20-round magazine and solid stock, but has a barrel length of just 20 inches. This reduces the maximum range and muzzle velocity of the rifle because some of the powder charge goes unused, but its shorter overall length makes it more ergonomic, and easier to use in cramped conditions. It is upon this variant of the SVT-92 that the Chinese Type 6 is based.
The SVT-92S and SVT-92SM, in which the "S" stands for Skladnoy, meaning "folding", is a variant of the base SVT-92 with a folding, skeleton stock created from pressed iron. This variant is most well-known for having a rear pistol grip to keep a folded stock from interfering with combat effectiveness. The skeleton stock reduces weight by about three fourths of a kilogram.
The SVT-92SU and SVT-92SUM combine the features of the other two primary variants—the shortened length and the folding stock. These variants were the least produced of any SVT-92 designs, as they were intended for use by vehicle crewmen and airborne infantry, but were never adopted officially by any branch of the Soviet military, although the SVT-92SUM did see some use in Bulgaria.
The original SVT-92 was designed to stop enemies with a single round at distance, hence the extremely large caliber. As such, it was originally adopted primarily by prisons across the Soviet Union, who used it as a defensive weapon. However, in 1994, the Soviets began a competition in which a rifle would be chosen to replace the aging AKM. The SVT-92 was among those chosen for evaluation by the Soviet Ground Forces, alongside the AK-74M and the Chinese Type 93 assault rifle. Recognizing the need for a powerful rifle to make up for their numerical inferiority compared to all of their potential foes, the SVT-92 was chosen as the new service rifle of the Soviet Ground Forces, for its power, reliability, and simplicity.
First used in the field by the Polish—on loan from the Soviet Union, who wanted to test the new rifle in the field—during the Polish-Czechoslovak war of 1998. As expected, the design was highly effective in terms of reliability and firepower. However, the rifle's extensive usage of stripper clips, as the en-bloc clip was still in prototyping, proved a detriment to the Polish during the war, and many times soldiers would find themselves reloading one bullet at a time.
The Type 6, a Chinese copy of the SVT-92, was developed in 1999 and was put into service alongside the Type 93 assault rifle, which was the standard of the Chinese forces. The Type 6 was only slightly different from the SVT-92's base design, having a detachable twenty-round magazine instead of a fixed twenty-round magazine, making it unofficially the first SVT-92 to have detachable magazines. It was used less often in combat than the Type 93, due to its already evident loading issues, but could still be found in all conflicts the Chinese became involved in from 2003 to the Great War.
The SVT-92's second mass production run in the early 2000s lead to its distribution throughout the world. Although largely dismissed by other nations, the rifle became popular in allies of the Soviet Union—namely Poland and Bulgaria—and was also sold to numerous paramilitary and revolutionary factions throughout the world, especially in Africa and South America. In addition, the SVT-92 design and production license was purchased from Tokarev by a Canadian arms manufacturer, becoming the M23 battle rifle.
The SVT-92M and its variants, put into production in the 2040s, were used reliably by Soviet border guards and infantry, as well as Polish and Bulgarian soldiers. During the skirmishes that took place between the Soviets and Chinese on the border of Siberia, from 2049–2077, the SVT-92M was used to great effect against the vast numerical superiority of the Chinese—though occasionally, the Type 6 would prove effective against the Soviets.
During the American occupation of Canada, the M23 (alongside the Chinese Type 93) was used by many Canadian guerrillas. American soldiers came to know the rifle as the "can-opener" for the way that the large round would often shatter the ceramic armors the Americans wore. However, when faced with powered armor, the M23 did very little.Although in 2065, the Chinese government passed numerous regulations wherein the usage of the Type 6 was limited purely to designated marksmen, many of the poorer soldiers continued to operate the Type 6 during the Sino-American, even up until the Great War. Though significantly outclassed by U.S. weapons and tech, the Type 6 proved effective against most American ground soldiers, provided they were not wearing powered armor. Some soldiers outfitted their Type 6 rifles with scopes, but because of the design of the bolt, there was a large amount of vertical spread, making it unreliable outside of its maximum range of 700 meters. Only the Type 9, a slightly altered Type 6 designed in 2074, improved upon this accuracy problem, making it a viable marksman's rifle.
After the Great War, the SVT-92 remained a popular weapon for a large menagerie of survivors. The American survivors had no access to the rifle, and as such it saw very little use in the continental United States. However, it was still prolific elsewhere, particularly Eastern Europe, Africa, and South America, where it had seen the most use pre-War. Thanks to its simple design, rugged frame, and ease of manufacture, the rifle remained a mainstay of most organizations in these regions, alongside more "delicate" weapons. During the PDI-Quebec War, the M23 remained the standard rifle of the Québécois for its sheer mass-reproducibility and simplicity.